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本文摘要:On the path along the waterfront of the Greenwich peninsula, on the river Thames in east London, residents have become used to encountering a four-wheeled pod trundling among the runners, walkers, cyclists and dogs. The vehicle runs regularly — at a maximum speed of 10mph, beeping continuously — between the InterContinental Hotel on the west of the peninsula and blocks of flats to the east.在纽约东部地区泰晤士河畔的格林威治(Greenwich)半岛花园,住户们早就习惯在各地的道路上遇到一种形如太空舱的四轮Pod车。


On the path along the waterfront of the Greenwich peninsula, on the river Thames in east London, residents have become used to encountering a four-wheeled pod trundling among the runners, walkers, cyclists and dogs. The vehicle runs regularly — at a maximum speed of 10mph, beeping continuously — between the InterContinental Hotel on the west of the peninsula and blocks of flats to the east.在纽约东部地区泰晤士河畔的格林威治(Greenwich)半岛花园,住户们早就习惯在各地的道路上遇到一种形如太空舱的四轮Pod车。这类小轿车比较慢地穿越重生在慢跑、行车、骑自行车和踏狗的大家中间。

以每钟头10公里的仅次速率,这类车在格林威治半岛花园中西部的洲际酒店(InterContinental Hotel)和东部地区的公寓楼区中间规律性地经营,一路接到嘟嘟声。The biggest surprise about the vehicle is not its futuristic appearance but how it is controlled. While current safety rules require a human to monitor the vehicle’s performance and step in to avoid crashes, the pod largely drives itself. It is one of several experiments worldwide aimed at exploring how autonomous vehicles might mesh with city transport systems. All are looking at how a technology being developed mainly for US highways can work in the more confined, chaotic space of city streets.这类车最令人惊讶的地区不取决于其新艺术运动的外型,而取决于其控制方法。虽然当今的安全系数政策法规回绝由人来监管无人驾驶轿车的经营、在适度时施展干预以避免安全事故,该辆车基础是无人驾驶的。在世界各国,为探索自动驾驶车辆怎样带到城市城市交通,大家在进行多种实验,它是在其中之一。

任何人都会瞩目:一项关键为美国公路产品研发的技术,怎样能运用于更为窄小、更为焦虑的城市街道。At the heart of these efforts is an attempt to work out whether driverless vehicles will ease or worsen the impact that private car travel has had on many cities following the highway-building craze of the mid-20th century.这种期待的关键是为了更好地确认一件事情:在二十世纪中期的公路建设潮以后,私家轿车上班对很多城市导致了危害,无人驾驶车子是不容易缓解還是不容易缓解这类危害。Some fear the technology could prompt more journeys by private motor vehicles rather than more space-efficient public transport. If the technology provides comfortable, stress-free, private journeys, it might also prompt people to commute daily from further afield, generating yet more traffic.一些人忧虑,无人驾驶技术将不容易带来更为多私人机动车辆上班,而不是提高更为节约道路室内空间的城市公共交通。

假如此项技术获得了一种舒适感、无工作压力的非城市公共交通方法,它也是有很有可能促使大家降低每天出行间距,进而造成更强的交通量。Experts concerned about such impacts on behaviour argue it is vital that the rollout of autonomous vehicle technology goes hand-in-hand with a rethink of how it is used.权威专家们焦虑无人驾驶技术不容易对不负责任造成危害,她们认为,重要的一点是,拓张自动驾驶车辆技术理应与新的逻辑思维这类技术的应用方法顺利进行。David Begg, a former chairman of the UK’s Commission for Integrated Transport, accepts that autonomous vehicles will use road space more efficiently but says the problem remains that cars take up too much space for the people they carry. On average, most vehicles contain little more than one person — the driver.美国综合性交通出行联合会(Commission for Integrated Transport)前主席杰弗里?贝格(David Begg)否定,自动驾驶车辆必须更为高效率地运用道路室内空间,但他答复,一个难题依然不会有,便是轿车闲置不用道路室内空间较为其装车的总数還是过度多。


均值来讲,大部分车子所述总数彻底仅有一人,便是驾驶员。“There’s no doubt [autonomous vehicles] can allow us to squeeze more vehicles [into] a given amount of capacity because they’re bumper-to-bumper and side-by-side,” Prof Begg says. “[But] unless we can increase vehicle occupancy up from 1.1, we’re moving too much fresh air and not enough people.”“不容置疑(自动驾驶车)必须使我们在明确的道路承载能力上挤进更强的车子,由于这种车子经行时能够首尾相连,上下紧贴,”贝格专家教授讲到,“(但)除非是大家必须将车子配置总数从1.1提高到更为多,不然大家便是挪动了过度多的气体,却没挪动充裕多的人。”Dieter Helm, professor of energy policy at Oxford university, dismisses many of the concerns about driverless technology. He says likely improvements in how close together autonomous vehicles can drive should reduce congestion problems. Because it will be easier for people to share use of autonomous vehicles, they will also quickly start carrying more passengers per trip, Prof Helm adds.剑桥大学(University of Oxford)电力能源现行政策专家教授迪特尔?赫尔姆(Dieter Helm)强调,很多对无人驾驶技术的焦虑全是没适度的。

他答复,自动驾驶车辆在经行中的间隔有可能扩大,这理应必须缓解道路堵塞难题。赫尔姆还讲到,由于大家必须更非常容易地共享自动驾驶车辆,自动驾驶车辆将快速必须在每一次行程安排中配置更强的旅客。“We have this distinction between public and private transport,” he says. “You either have you in your car or lots of people in a train. An interesting question about autonomous vehicles is: what would be their capacity use [per] car?”“大家对城市公共交通和个人上班不会有那样的区别,”他讲到:“要不是自身躺在自身的车内,要不是很多人另外乘坐一趟火车。


相关自动驾驶车辆,一个有趣的难题是:(每台)车的运输能力利用率将多少钱?”The Greenwich experiment, which is being run in conjunction with Heathrow airport and TRL, a transport research company, is exploring a fundamental question about how autonomous vehicles will fit into city streets. Oxbotica, the Oxford company that developed the vehicle’s software, is trying to improve the pods’ ability to track people, cyclists and other non-vehicular objects.已经格林威治半岛花园进行的这一试验,是与希斯罗机场(Heathrow airport)和交通出行科学研究企业TRL协作大力开展的。此项试验探索的是一个全局性难题——自动驾驶车辆可否适应能力城市街道?位于剑桥的Oxbotica产品研发了此车手机软件,该企业因此以全面提高自动驾驶车辆追踪行车和骑自行车的人及其别的非车子行为主体的工作能力。

While autonomous cars on larger urban highways should be able to move closer together by communicating with each other, performance on city streets will depend on how well they can navigate around non-mechanised obstacles.虽然在更为开阔的城市道路上,自动驾驶车辆必须根据相互之间沟通交流在经行时贴到得更为接近,他们在城市街道上的展示出将不尽相同他们可否非常好地防止非机械自动化阻碍物。Nick Reed, who is in charge of the Greenwich experiment for TRL, hopes it will be more pleasant for passengers to share space with autonomous vehicles than human-driven cars. Unlike people, they behave predictably and will be programmed to travel as safely as possible. “That could be a transformational change,” he says.TRL部门管理格林威治新项目的尼克斯?里(Nick Reed)期待,对旅客来讲,共享自动驾驶车辆将比共享人们司机的车子更为不舒服。

和人们驾驶员各有不同,自动驾驶车辆的不负责任是能够预测分析的,并且不容易被原做为尽可能安全系数地司机。“这很有可能会是一个彻底的变化,”他说道。Nevertheless, dense cities will still need high-capacity, fast public transport networks such as metros. The most significant autonomous technology development in Greenwich in recent years has arguably been new signalling on the Jubilee Tube line that allows trains to run faster and closer together, largely without drivers’ intervention.不管怎样,更为聚集的城市依然务必大运输能力的髙速公共交通系统软件,例如地铁站。伦敦地铁Jubilee线的新通信系统能够说道是近些年格林威治最全局性的全自动科研开发新项目,该系统软件能让火车经行速率更为慢、经营间隔更为小,并且基础不务必驾驶员参与。

It is no coincidence that the Greenwich pod stops at several public transport hubs, including the Jubilee Line’s North Greenwich station. The hope is that such automated systems may in time provide more efficient, cost-effective links to public transport networks than are possible at present.格林威治的自动驾驶小轿车在Jubilee地铁线路的北格林威治(North Greenwich)地铁站等好多个公共交通核心区停靠站,是无意为之。大家期待,长此以往,那样的自动化技术必须扩宽目前的概率,以更为高效率、更为节约成本的方法相接起各公共交通互联网。


Chris Joyce, head of surface access for Heathrow, which uses autonomous shuttles to link a car park to Terminal 5, says that such uses of technology can help to shift transport in developed countries away from dependence on private cars.希斯罗机场路面交通出行换乘事务管理负责人查尔斯?乔伊斯(Chris Joyce)答复,用以这类技术性有利于降低资本主义国家交通出行中对私家轿车的仰仗。希斯罗运用自动驾驶摆渡车在地下停车场和5号候机楼中间乘座旅客。

But the shift has to be made on the basis of “right vehicle for the right journey”. Some trips will remain too inconvenient to be shifted to even the most efficient public transport. “Just moving everybody on to public transport isn’t the solution, just as moving everybody on to autonomous vehicles isn’t the solution,” he says.但这类更改必不可少建立在“依据行程安排随意选择合适车子”的基本上。有一些行程安排,即便是改成应用最高效率的公共交通,也依然不容易过度不方便。




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